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1. Guarantees.

In relation to guarantees, a downstream guarantee is one given by a parent company in relation to the obligations of one of its subsidiary companies.

2. Lending.

A downstream loan is a loan made by a parent company to one of its subsidiary companies.

3. Oil and gas.

In the oil and gas industry the downstream business refers to distributing and selling refined and synthetic oil and gas products, together with the refining of crude oil.

Examples of downstream business include petrol and domestic gas retailing.

4. Supply chain.

More generally, 'downstream' and 'upstream' refer to the relative position of a business in the supply chain.

'Downstream' businesses are relatively closer to the end user.

See also