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1. Law - deeds.

A deed that has been delivered, but that is not to become operative until a future date, or until a specified condition has been fulfilled.

2. Contract law.

Funds or documents in escrow are held by a trusted independent third party, to be released only on the fulfilment of prespecified conditions.

ISDA Master Agreements - other provisions
"... extra provision required by the parties... may include:
escrow provisions to address potential problems arising from time differences between the places to which each party makes payments (i.e. one party could make a payment at the time it is obliged to do so in the relevant time zone but then fail to receive payment due to it from the other party); in this situation provision can be made for a third party to hold payments “in escrow” and only release a payment when it has received the corresponding payment from the other party."
The Treasurer's Wiki - Derivatives documentation

3. Bank accounts.

Escrow accounts are bank accounts that hold funds owned by another party, separately from other assets.

See also