1. Monetary policy.
In relation to monetary policy, 'hawkish' monetary policies aim to fight inflation, and are associated with relatively higher interest rates.
Contrasted with more 'dovish' approaches.
More broadly, 'hawkish' policies are generally less conciliatory and more assertive, aggressive or warlike, contrasted with 'dovish' ones.
The term derives from the behaviour of hawks, compared with doves.