From ACT Wiki
Litigation funding is where a third party provides the financial resources to enable litigation or arbitration cases to proceed.
The litigant obtains all or part of the financing to cover its legal costs from a private commercial litigation funder, who has no direct interest in the proceedings.
In return, if the case is won, the funder receives an agreed share of the proceeds of the claim.
If the case is unsuccessful, the funder loses its money and nothing is owed by the litigant.