1. Financial reporting.
For financial reporting purposes, an investment is normally classed and accounted for as an associate (or associated undertaking) when:
(i) the investor exercises significant influence over the operating and financial policies of the other entity, which is normally through holdings of over 20%, but less than 50%; and
(ii) that other entity is not a subsidiary undertaking and the investment does not constitute an interest in a joint venture.
Relevant accounting standards include IAS 28 and Section 14 and Section 15 of FRS 102.
2. Membership organisations.
A category of membership that is less than full membership.